The establishment of Lukashenko's authoritarian regime took place in the 1990s with the full connivance of the Belarusian society. Two years after the election, the homegrown European dictator began to strengthen his personal power, having committed, in fact, a coup d'état. Lukashenko's authoritarian regime was fully formed by the beginning of the new Millennium. All this became possible against the background of betrayal by the political elite who did not want to follow the letter of the law.

Political censorship was introduced in the country, the opposition and activists were being persecuted by the police (militia) and the Special Forces (KGB). Over time, the repression intensified — many opposition leaders were imprisoned, some of them emigrated to neighboring Poland and Lithuania. It is worth noting, that during this period, representatives of science and culture, critical of the regime, left Belarus as well. Journalists and authors of articles, criticizing the authorities and the dictator personally, were subjected to repression including criminal prosecution, based on fabricated by the Special Forces evidence and supported by totally controlled judiciary.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, the regime has turned to outright betrayal of Belarusian national interests in favor of Russia. As a result, the army and the Special Forces of Belarus became infiltrated by agents of Russian intelligence, most of the economy turned hostage to Moscow, and the frenzied propaganda and brainwashing of citizens by Russian TV prepared fertile ground for the annexation of the Republic.

To date, there is a real threat of Belarus losing its sovereignty, part of which (defense, foreign policy, economy) has already been lost.

Since the first days of its existence, Lukashenko's regime has been pursuing a policy of Russification of the Republic, the Belarusian language is perceived as a secondary language, and the main producer of cultural content is Russia, which uses it to the detriment of Belarusian national interests. The return to Soviet symbols only made the cultural degradation of Belarus worse, depriving the country of its historical past.

Lukashenko’s economic model has shown its complete inefficiency and only increased dependence on Russia, in many areas critical.

As a result of Lukashenko’s personal dictatorship, the existing system of power became extremely unstable. The system of power succession, destroyed by the years of criminal rule of the so-called “father”, is an important factor in the political games of the Kremlin, which is waiting for the possibility to annex Belarus to the Russian Federation with Lukashenko's departure. All this was prepared in advance by the Belarusian dictator, who pursued a short-sighted policy of “friendship” with Putin's regime.

Years of rule: 1994 — present time;

Official position occupied: President;

Official title:

Official ideology: Socialism;

Unofficial title: Father;

Quotes and sayings:Our dictatorship does not prevent anyone from living and developing”, “I shall not go public with rogues, including Russia”, “Vodka, bread, cigarettes – people won’t survive without them, so we help such enterprises!”, “I do not live up to Vladimir Ilyich (Lenin) and Joseph Vissarionovich (Stalin), so I have something to strive for”, ”We got our independence with little effort: all other nations fought for it, our brotherly Ukraine does it right now”

Level of tyranny: High;

Influence on democracy: Extremely Negative;

Results of the reign: Personality cult, destruction of freedom of speech, political repression, political prisoners, physical liquidation of the opposition, censorship in the cinema, restriction of freedom of speech, lack of an independent judiciary, violation of the rights and freedoms of citizens;

Pros of the reign: Abolition of visas for visitors from 80 countries (including the US and the EU);

Evil Rating — x.xx/10

Alexander Lukashenko. Brief Chronology of the Reign

1994: Alexander Lukashenko won the presidential election for the first time;

1995: Return to the Soviet past;

1996: Control over the media, Lukashenko's dictatorial regime; Lukashenko's authority increased as a result of the referendum; Voluntary resignation of senior officials; Suppression of the Independent Constitutional Court; “Minsk spring”;

1999: Persecution of political opponents;

2001: Another victory in the presidential elections; Blocking Internet resources of the opposition;

2002: The editor-in-chief and the journalist of the newspaper “Pahonia” sent to prison; Destruction of independent sociology;

2004: Valery Levaneuski sentenced to two years in prison for criticizing the government;

2006: Blocking of Internet resources (including LiveJournal), “Oil and Gas War” between Belarus and Russia, Arrest of human rights activist Ekaterina Sadovskaya;

2007: Arrest of opposition leader Andrei Klimov;

2009: Recognition of an issue of the popular science magazine “ARCHE-pachatak” extremist, Creation of a supervisory authority dealing with censorship of cinema and literature;

2010: Another presidential election; protests in Minsk, Arrest of the leaders of the protest movement, journalists and opponents; Increase of authority of the “Operational and Analytical Center under the President”; Energy crisis between Belarus and Russia;

2014: Dictator against the Internet; Pressure on freedom of speech on the Internet; Blocking of the main opposition websites;

2015: Normalization of relations with the European Union; Destruction of copies of the book by Vitali Silitski;

2016: Another ”Oil and Gas War” between Belarus and Russia;

2017: Blocking of the independent website “Belarusian partisan”;

2018: Belarusian authorities blocked the opposition website “Charter-97”;

2019: Introduction of fees for carrying out street actions;

 

Alexander Lukashenko. Detailed Timeline Of The Reign

1995: After the collapse of the Soviet Union, new national symbols were adopted in Belarus: the “Pahonia” coat of arms and the white-red-white flag of the Republic. However, after Alexander Lukashenko came to power, the process of returning to the Soviet past began. A new coat of arms and a new flag were adopted by referendum in 1995. They barely differed from the previous ones – Soviet. [Wikipedia]

1996: During the political crisis of 1996, the information newspaper “Narodnaya Gazeta” criticized the President, taking the side of the Parliament. Lukashenko turned “Narodnaya Gazeta” into a closed joint stock company and appointed a loyal editor-in-chief. After the carried-out “reform”, the newspaper began to describe advantages of the President and, on the contrary, to criticize the Parliament on its first pages. The destruction of the independent newspaper marked the emergence of a new dictatorship in Europe. [Wikipedia]

Lukashenko's authority increased as a result of the referendum in Belarus. Now the President has the right to appoint and dismiss all Ministers, the Prosecutor General, judges and the administration of the National Bank. Most international organizations and countries (including the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the European Union) did not accept the result of the referendum, noting numerous violations during the vote: it looked more like a coup than the will of the people of Belarus. In protest against the tyranny of the President, 7 judges as well as the President of the Constitutional Court V. Tikhinya, Deputy Minister of foreign Affairs Andrei Sannikov, Prime Minister Mikhail Chigir, Secretary of labor Alexander Sosnov resigned. [Wikipedia]

The confrontation between the Parliament and the Constitutional Court on the one hand and Alexander Lukashenko on the other ended with the victory of the President. In November, the decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Belarus “On termination of proceedings on violation of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus by the President of the Republic Alexander Lukashenko” was issued, according to which the President was relieved of responsibility for violation of the main law of the country. Due to the refusal of the Constitutional Court to perform its direct duties, Alexander Lukashenko avoided impeachment. [levonevsky.org]

Minsk spring — a protest action in Belarus, held in the spring of 1996-1997. The rally was attended by opposition forces and Communists who supported the government. The people of the country came out to cancel the community agreement between Russia and Belarus and demand the resignation of Alexander Lukashenko. [naviny.by]

1999: Shortly before the election, Lukashenko’s political opponent Mikhail Chigir was arrested. He put his candidacy forward and wanted to win the presidential election democratically. The criminal prosecution of Mikhail Chigir continued for three years. [Wikipedia]

2001: Alexander Lukashenko won the presidential elections as expected; the elections were marked by numerous violations. The US and the EU did not recognize the results of the vote, because the process was inconsistent with democratic principles. The whole year was marked by pressure on the opposition and freedom of speech, law enforcement agencies dispersed rallies, and the KGB pursued a policy of intimidation and blackmail in the regions of the country. The day of voting was darkened by disconnection of mobile communications and the Internet, and the majority of non-state structures associated with the elections even lost their landline connection. There were no documented cases of fraud, but the votes of observers did not coincide with the calculations of the members of the Commission quite often. Demands of observers to count votes were rejected, and complaints to the Central Commission were ignored. [Wikipedia]

During the presidential elections, Alexander Lukashenko blocked dozens of opposition social and political resources, including Charter'97. Since then, the restriction policy towards independent media has been carried out on a regular basis. The dictator of Belarus was one of the first to understand the danger of uncontrolled Internet, which can destroy any dictatorship. [Хартыя’97]

2002 год: The editor-in-chief of the newspaper “Pahonia” Mikola Markevich and a journalist Pavel Mozheyko were sentenced to two and a half and two years' imprisonment respectively for slander against the President of the Republic of Belarus. The piquancy of the situation is that the readers did not even have time to read the written articles, since the entire circulation was arrested in the printing house. [Белорусский партизан]

The dictatorial regime of Lukashenko was very irritated by the fact, that the data of independent sociological surveys of the population differ from the official ones (for example, concerning the presidential elections), so the resolution “On activities related to the research and publication of the results of public opinion polls related to the socio-political situation in the country, Republican referendums and elections” was developed and adopted, which destroyed the independent sociology. [Экономическая Газета]

2004 год: Fully dependent on Lukashenko court found the Belarusian politician and critic of the government Valery Levonevsky guilty of publicly insulting the President of Belarus under article 368, part 2 of the criminal code, and sentenced him to two years in prison. His Deputy Alexander Leninsky was sentenced to the same term. The reason for the arrest was most likely a leaflet with the following text: “come and express, that you are against letting ”someone” go to Austria to relax, ski and have fun at your expense”.  Alexander Lukashenko, following the best traditions of patriotism, spent some time skiing in Austria earlier, so the country's Prosecutor's office decided that the leaflet publicly insulted the incumbent President. [Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty]

2006 год: The destruction of freedom of speech on the Internet continued. Belarusian authorities have blocked not only opposition resources but also the LiveJournal, in which users used to express their views on Lukashenko’s re-election. [Хартыя’97]

In December, the “Oil and Gas War” broke out between the two “brotherly countries”, which ended after a telephone conversation between the two dictators. [Wikipedia]

In October, the court of Leninsky district of Minsk condemned a known human rights activist Ekaterina Sadovskaya for two years for insulting the President. In 2007, she was released on parole ”for good behavior”. In 2014, in protest against the detention of civil activists, Ekaterina wrote in the book of complaints of the Soviet Court of Minsk: “How long will the judges follow the criminal instructions of a mentally ill citizen Lukashenko?” For expressing the opinion, the court sentenced her to two years in prison. [ТУТ БАЙ МЕДИА]

2007: Prosecutions and arrests occur regularly in Belarus. Leader of opposition and Deputy of the Supreme Council Andrei Klimov received 2 years in a colony of strict regime under article 361 part 3 of the criminal code “Calls for overthrow or change of the constitutional system, carried out with the help of the media”. Alexander Lukashenko consistently destroys democracy, civil liberties and any resistance to his dictatorial regime. [Хартыя’97]

2009: The independent popular science magazine “ARCHE-pachatak” has been published in Belarus since 1997 and has a liberal political orientation. Activities of the magazine strongly irritate Lukashenko's criminal dictatorial regime. On February 25, the court of the Moscow district of Brest recognized extremist issues 7th and 8th of the periodical. International organization “reporters without borders” expressed its solidarity with the founder Andrei Dynko and disapproved of the prosecution of the magazine. [Белорусские новости]

From the beginning of his reign, Alexander Lukashenko began to restore the Soviet system, which included: repression, censorship, lack of power succession and of freedom of speech, violation of civil rights, destruction of dissent and other prohibitions. In June, a Supervisory authority was established to carry out a thorough inspection of all foreign cinematographic and literary works. [Wikipedia]

2010: Dictator of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko is once again re-elected in controversial elections, which were darkened by falsifications and numerous violations. Mass protests were held on the election day, which were brutally suppressed by the police and internal troops. Opposition leaders, journalists, opponents and critics of the government were arrested and subsequently sentenced to various prison terms. [Wikipedia]

December 19, a mass protest broke out in Minsk against another re-election of the dictator for a new presidential term. Since 1994, Alexander Lukashenko has been destroying any resistance to his regime in the country. The December peaceful demonstration was brutally suppressed by police and internal troops and hundreds of protesters, including opposition leaders, were detained. Dozens of people have received real prison terms. Democratic Western countries condemned the suppression of the protest, but Putin's dictatorial regime, on the contrary, supported the usurper of Belarus. [Белорусский партизан]

A mass protest was held in Minsk at the end of December. In order to suppress opposition sentiments in society, the dictatorial regime began to arrest the leaders of the protest movement, who were later recognized by the world community as “prisoners of conscience”. List of detainees: 1. Alexey Mikhalevich was detained for two months; after the release, he held a press conference, where he said, that under torture he was forced to cooperate with the investigation. He left the country later and received political asylum. However, in 2015 he returned to Belarus. At the moment, the criminal case against him has not been closed yet. 2. Andrei Sannikov was sentenced to 5 years in prison on May 14, 2011, and released on parole on April 14, 2012. Emigrated to the UK. 3. On May 26, 2011, Mikalai Statkevich was sentenced to six years' imprisonment in a high-security colony. Pardoned by Lukashenko on August 22, 2015. 4. Uladzimir Nyaklyaeu, 20 May 2011, sentenced to two years with a grace period of two years. 5. The journalist of the Internet portal “Charter'97” Natalya Radina was released on January 31, 2011 under the condition to leave Minsk to the hometown of Kobrin. She fled to Russia and then to Poland, where she received political asylum. 6. Journalist Iryna Khalip was placed under house arrest and sentenced to 2 years of probation on May 16th. 7. The editor of the newspaper “Comrade” Sergei Wozniak and 8. one of the authors of the “Great Russian Encyclopedia” Alexander Feduta were sentenced to 2 years of probation 9. Vitaly Rymashevsky received 2 years with a grace period of 2 years. 10. Pavel Sevyarynets was sentenced to three years in prison on May 16, 2011. He was released on October 19, 2013. 11. Anatol Lyabedzka 12. Alexander Sannikov 13. Vladimir Kobets 14. Dmitri Bondarenko 15. Anastasia Polozhanko. [amnesty.org]

Belarus and Russia had a hysterical gas conflict with mutual claims and reproaches. Belarusian economy de facto exists thanks to Russia. [ТУТ БАЙ МЕДИА]

Alexander Lukashenko has expanded the powers of the “Operational and Analytical Center under the President”, which may now engage in operational and investigative activities and monitor mail, telegraph and other messages as well as receive information from technical communication channels. [BDG]

2014: The country adopted the law “On mass media”, which gave more opportunities to the authorities to destroy unwanted resources (including blogs) and suppress freedom of speech on the Internet.[www.pravo.by]

Several opposition resources that develop freedom of speech on the Internet, telling people the truth about Lukashenko's criminal regime, were blocked. [RSF]

2015 год: Alexander Lukashenko cunningly and prudently used the Ukrainian crisis to normalize relations with the European Union, did not support Russia and acted as an arbitrator at the Minsk agreements. As a result, the EU lifted sanctions against Belarus, and Alexander Lukashenko ironically mocked the Kremlin regime: “I am no longer the last dictator in Europe. There are worse dictators than me, aren't there?” [Bloomberg]

In Belarus, the entire circulation of the book by political scientist Vitali Silitski “the Long road from tyranny: post-Communist authoritarianism and the struggle for democracy in Serbia and Belarus”, which compared the regime of Slobodan Milosevic and Alexander Lukashenko, was destroyed. [Лента]

2016: Another energy conflict broke out between Belarus and Russia. Lukashenko himself commented: “Why press us so hard, why take us by the throat? It is clear that we will cope without Russian oil. But it will be very difficult for us” [Ведомости]

2017 год: The dictatorial regime of Belarus continued to destroy freedom of speech on the Internet, and the independent information portal “Belarusian partisan” was blocked. The “Belarusian partisan” website was created by a group of independent journalists in 2005, during the mass blocking of other opposition resources [DW]

2018 год: The popular opposition website “Charter'97” was blocked by the decision of the Ministry of Information of Belarus. [DW]

2019 год: Alexander Lukashenko has come up with a new way to defeat the protest movement in the country: now the organizers of non-state street events will pay for public order protection and bear the costs associated with medical care and territory cleaning. It is actually yet another tax. For example, the cost of public order protection services by the police is: for an event of up to 10 people – 3 basic values (about 31 euros); up to 100 people – 25 basic values (about 260 euros); up to 1000 people – 150 basic values (about 1555 euros); over 1000 participants – 250 basic values (over 2590 euros). The opposition offered the Belarusian authorities to clean up after the rallies by own means, but the regime did not agree. Why citizens have to pay for public services two times, the dictatorial regime did not comment. (Taxpayers' money has already been payed for the work of the police, doctors, utilities [Youtube]

Alexander Lukashenko. Gallery

[Photo: Photo by Madoka Ikegami-Pool/Getty Images, Vladimir Astapkovich/Host Photo Agency/Ria Novosti via Getty Images, Tajikistan Presidency/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images]

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